Difference between revisions of "Main Page"

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{{Display censorship incident
 
{{Display censorship incident
 
|ongoing=no
 
|ongoing=no
|year=2010
+
|year=1936
 
|region=North America
 
|region=North America
|artist=Magazine Companies versus Apple's "No-Nipple" Policy
+
|artist=Victor Arnautoff ('Life of Washington' murals)
|subject=Nudity, Political/Economic/Social Opinion
+
|subject=Political/Economic/Social Opinion
|confronting_bodies=Apple Inc.
+
|confronting_bodies=San Francisco Board of Education
|medium=Print Journalism
+
|medium=Painting, Public Art
|date_of_action=May 2010
+
|date_of_action=December 2018-June 2019
|location=United States
+
|location=San Francisco, CA
|description_of_content=Many art and fashion magazines contain nudity or revealing clothing as a form of artistic expression. In 2010, the Apple App Store instituted a “no-nipple” policy, directly affecting magazines sold on the store. This policy upheld Apple’s desire to remain a family-friendly company and not to feature pornography, adult content, or nudity. However, it also limited art and fashion magazines like ''Dazed and Confused'', ''Vice'', and ''Cosmopolitan''.
+
|description_of_content=“Life of Washington” is a mural comprising thirteen panels in fresco on the life of George Washington that depict him in both real and imagined scenarios. It was painted by Russian-American painter and Stanford professor of art Victor Arnautoff in the 1930s (with assistance from artists George Harris and Gorden Langdon) and completed in 1936 at the newly built George Washington High School in San Francisco.  
|description_of_incident=Apples Newsstand feature came out in 2010. This application allowed Apple users to download their favorite books and magazines in one place. With the origination of the Newsstand feature came a new set of guidelines. The guidelines were very general. In one section the company stated, “We will reject Apps for any content or behavior that we believe is over the line. What line, you ask? Well, as a Supreme Court Justice once said, ‘I’ll know it when I see it’. And we think that you will also know it when you cross it.” This established the company as an omnipotent power over what was allowed on the App Store and specifically caused fashion and art magazines to omit much of the content from the Apple versions of their publications. Because of this magazine companies nicknamed their iPad editions the “Iranian versions.”
+
|description_of_result=Magazines were forced to self-censor, removing images of models that showed nipples or revealed too much skin. If they didn’t submit to this, they risked Apple removing their application from the App Store. However, publishers still tried to push the boundaries of some of their content. For example, ''Cosmopolitan'' included cartoon pictures of people having sex accompanied by a detailed description of their position and their physical actions. This supposedly was not removed by Apple because the magazine was clearly for users seventeen and older, was password protected, and did not contain any real-life nudity. Though Apple made a few exceptions, such as allowing ''The Sun'' to keep their daily topless model known as the “Page 3 Girl,” most questionable fashion and art content, especially bare-breasted models, was not permitted. Consumers and publishers alike contest Apple’s pressure on them to self-censor because though the world of journalism is shifting to a digital medium, Apple does not allow users to fully utilize their resources and acquire the same material in Apple devices as they would in print magazines.
+
  
In present day Apple still pressures publishers to self-censor and exercises the right to remove content that they do not think upholds Apple’s values. Additionally, Apple places ratings and justifications for these ratings of the magazine apps on the App Store. However, these ratings are highly subjective and inconsistent. In 2013 the American versions of ''Cosmopolitan'', ''Dazed and Confused'', and ''Playboy'' are categorized as “must be at least 17 years old to download this app.” Whereas magazines like Vanity Fair and ''Harper’s Bazaar'' are rated “12+,” though the print versions of these magazines have, in the past, featured nude women on their covers multiple times. And ''Seventeen Magazine'', a magazine whose namesake reveals the audience it targets, is rated a “4+.” Apple does not only censor magazines, but also novels and other applications, and since 2010 they have refused to change this policy.
+
Funded by the Works Progress Administration's (WPA) Federal Art Project, the murals were Arnautoff’s largest New Deal commission and one of the largest ensembles of New Deal artworks at a single site. Arnautoff was a well-known muralist, having painted other WPA funded projects including murals at Coit Tower where he was Technical Director of the project.
|image=6a00e55225079e88340133ed76d25c970b-800wi.jpg
+
 
 +
Arnautoff presented the murals as a counter-narrative to high school history texts of the time. The murals depicted Washington's dependence on slave labor, his role in Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion, and the “march of the white race” (in Arnautoff’s words). In one panel Washington is depicted pointing westward over the body of dead Native American.
 +
 
 +
Arnautoff's political views were influenced by Diego Rivera, for whom he worked as an assistant while living in Mexico. His style is considered more subtle than Rivera's and that of other social realists of the period. Later he joined the Communist Party, the American Artists' Congress and the San Francisco Artists and Writers Union. His politics were reflected in his work, which was part of the mural arts movement intended to inspire change through criticism of the current political system.
 +
 
 +
Two of the mural panels have come under fire since the 1960’s for their depictions of African Americans and Native Americans. For decades, activists have called for their removal.
 +
|description_of_incident=In December 2018, George Washington High School was denied landmark status specifically due to the two panels containing offensive content. The high school is part of the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education. The Board was divided about the school’s application for landmark status because designating it as such would make it impossible to modify or remove the murals afterwards.
 +
 
 +
The SFUSD created a 13-member “Reflection and Action Group” to provide a recommendation to the Board. In February 2019, after four public meetings, they issued their final recommendation to remove the entire series of murals from the school.
 +
 
 +
The George Washington High School Alumni Association GWHSAA) launched a campaign to keep the 83-year-old murals intact. The alumni proposed adding interpretive panels to give them historical context and to also document how they have been experienced by Native American, African American, and other students of color.
 +
 
 +
The story was extensively covered in both local and national media. Those who would censor the work cited its depiction of slavery and the murder of a Native American as traumatizing to some students of color. Others, including NCAC and the leaders of four of San Francisco’s top visual arts institutions, argued that it is an artistic and historical treasure that does not celebrate the life of George Washington uncritically, but rather depicts him as complicit in slavery and the violent pursuit of America’s “Manifest Destiny.”
 +
|description_of_result=On June 25, 2019, the San Francisco Board of Education voted unanimously to remove/paint over the murals.
 +
|image=Arnautoff, Life of Washington.jpg
 +
|source=Photo: Amanda Law, via https://www.donnagraves.org/blog/2018/2/27/citywide-historic-context-for-new-deal-san-francisco
 
}}
 
}}
http://www.wordyard.com/2010/09/09/how-will-the-app-stores-new-newsstand-be-censored/
+
GEORGE WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL: ARNAUTOFF MURAL – SAN FRANCISCO CA
 +
https://livingnewdeal.org/projects/george-washington-high-school-arnautoff-mural-san-francisco-ca/
 +
 
 +
CITYWIDE HISTORIC CONTEXT FOR NEW DEAL SAN FRANCISCO
 +
https://www.donnagraves.org/blog/2018/2/27/citywide-historic-context-for-new-deal-san-francisco
 +
 
 +
NCAC Letter: May 6, 2019
 +
SAN FRANCISCO HIGH SCHOOL MAY DESTROY HISTORICAL MURALS
 +
https://ncac.org/news/san-francisco-high-school-may-destroy-historical-murals
 +
 
 +
Professor Dewey Crumpler Defends GWHS Murals
 +
GWHS Alumni Assn SF CA
 +
Art Professor Dewey Crumpler defends Victor Arnautoff's (WPA/PWA 1936) Murals and discusses how the Arnautoff murals relate to his [Crumpler's] 1974 murals, and vice versa, at George Washington High School (San Francisco, California).  We must face, not erase, America’s dark history.  Censorship is never acceptable. - GWHS Alumni Association
 +
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZEMpyvdAXQ&feature=youtu.be
 +
 
 +
June 26, 2019
 +
San Francisco school board votes to destroy controversial Washington High mural
 +
Jill Tucker
 +
https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/San-Francisco-school-board-votes-to-destroy-14050025.php
 +
 
 +
SF school board votes to destroy circa 1936 mural
 +
“No one has the right to tell us as native people—or our young people who walk those halls everyday—how they feel” 
 +
https://sf.curbed.com/2019/6/24/18716046/george-washington-high-murals-sfusd-vote-victor-arnautoff
 +
 
 +
SFUSD Approves Covering Controversial George Washington High School Mural
 +
https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2019/06/26/george-washington-high-school-mural-cover-up-sfusd/
 +
 
 +
June 25, 2019
 +
Bay Area art leaders on censorship of George Washington High mural
 +
The controversial mural will see its fate decided during a Tuesday evening school board meeting
 +
https://datebook.sfchronicle.com/art-exhibits/bay-area-art-leaders-on-censorship-of-george-washington-high-mural
 +
 
 +
School board votes to paint over historic high school mural
 +
Alumni have threatened to sue over removal of frescoes depicting slavery, death of Native Americans
 +
https://www.sfexaminer.com/the-city/school-board-votes-to-paint-over-offensive-sections-of-historic-high-school-mural/
 +
 
 +
June 24, 2019
 +
Open Forum: The San Francisco School Board is flunking history
 +
By Lope Yap Jr. 
 +
https://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/openforum/article/Open-Forum-The-San-Francisco-School-Board-is-14039382.php
 +
 
 +
June 20, 2019
 +
High school mural debate a reminder that destroying art destroys our culture
 +
https://datebook.sfchronicle.com/art-exhibits/high-school-mural-debate-a-reminder-that-destroying-art-destroys-our-culture
 +
 
 +
June 19, 2019
 +
Activists want a racist San Francisco high school mural removed
 +
https://tworowtimes.com/opinion/activists-want-a-racist-san-francisco-high-school-mural-removed/
 +
 
 +
June 17, 2019
 +
Fate of controversial SF high school mural down to three options
 +
https://www.sfchronicle.com/education/article/Fate-of-controversial-SF-high-school-mural-down-14008090.php?psid=auUdw
 +
 
 +
June 15, 2019
 +
National Coalition Against Censorship Urges Retaining Washington Murals
 +
https://sfrichmondreview.com/2019/06/15/national-coalition-against-censorship-urges-retaining-washington-murals/
 +
 
 +
June 10 2019
 +
Activists want a high school mural removed. Should its impact today overshadow the artist's intentions?
 +
https://www.cnn.com/style/article/george-washington-mural-conversation/index.html
 +
 
 +
MAY 13, 2019
 +
David and Art - "High School Mural"
 +
By BRODIE BASHAW
 +
https://www.kwbu.org/post/david-and-art-high-school-mural#stream/0
 +
 
 +
May 7, 2019 9:00 p.m
 +
Feds could weigh in on fight over preservation of historic mural
 +
SFUSD working group favors removal of controversial Washington High School fresco
 +
https://www.sfexaminer.com/the-city/feds-could-weigh-in-on-fight-over-preservation-of-historic-mural/
 +
 
 +
May 3, 2019
 +
High School May Remove George Washington Mural that 'Traumatizes Students and Community Members'
 +
http://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2019/may/high-school-may-remove-george-washington-mural-that-traumatizes-students-and-community-members
 +
 
 +
Apr 15, 2019
 +
STUDENT OPINION
 +
Should School Murals That Depict an Ugly History Be Removed?
 +
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/15/learning/should-school-murals-that-depict-an-ugly-history-be-removed.html
 +
 
 +
April 11, 2019
 +
These High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go?
 +
By Carol Pogash
 +
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals-ugly-history-debated.html
 +
 
 +
April 9, 2019
 +
Historic WPA murals at George Washington High School are facing destruction due to controversial depictions of Native Americans and African-Americans
 +
https://richmondsfblog.com/2019/04/09/historic-wpa-murals-at-george-washington-high-school-are-facing-destruction-due-to-controversial-depictions-of-native-americans-and-african-americans/
 +
 
 +
April 8, 2019
 +
Critics say mural depicting slavery, Native Americans at a San Francisco high school is offensive
 +
http://www.ktvu.com/news/ktvu-local-news/critics-say-mural-depicting-slavery-native-americans-at-a-san-francisco-high-school-is-offensive
  
http://www.shinyshiny.tv/2010/05/apples_itunes_censors_fashion_magazines.html
+
Offensive or important? Debate flares anew over SF school mural depicting slavery
 +
https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/Offensive-or-important-Debate-flares-anew-over-13748800.php
  
http://www.dailyfinance.com/2010/08/11/dirty-apps-how-magazines-are-handling-apples-erratic-censorshi/
+
April 2, 2019
 +
Washington High Alumni Push to Keep Dubious Mural
 +
A mural showing colonizers stepping over a dead Native American has long been controversial, but an alumni group is fighting to save it.
 +
http://www.sfweekly.com/news/washington-high-alumni-push-to-keep-dubious-mural/
  
  

Revision as of 10:47, 28 June 2019

Featured Case



Arnautoff, Life of Washington.jpg

Artist: Victor Arnautoff ('Life of Washington' murals)

Year: 1936

Date of Action: December 2018-June 2019

Region: North America

Location: San Francisco, CA

Subject: Political/Economic/Social Opinion

Medium: Painting, Public Art

Confronting Bodies: San Francisco Board of Education

Description of Artwork: “Life of Washington” is a mural comprising thirteen panels in fresco on the life of George Washington that depict him in both real and imagined scenarios. It was painted by Russian-American painter and Stanford professor of art Victor Arnautoff in the 1930s (with assistance from artists George Harris and Gorden Langdon) and completed in 1936 at the newly built George Washington High School in San Francisco.

Funded by the Works Progress Administration's (WPA) Federal Art Project, the murals were Arnautoff’s largest New Deal commission and one of the largest ensembles of New Deal artworks at a single site. Arnautoff was a well-known muralist, having painted other WPA funded projects including murals at Coit Tower where he was Technical Director of the project.

Arnautoff presented the murals as a counter-narrative to high school history texts of the time. The murals depicted Washington's dependence on slave labor, his role in Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion, and the “march of the white race” (in Arnautoff’s words). In one panel Washington is depicted pointing westward over the body of dead Native American.

Arnautoff's political views were influenced by Diego Rivera, for whom he worked as an assistant while living in Mexico. His style is considered more subtle than Rivera's and that of other social realists of the period. Later he joined the Communist Party, the American Artists' Congress and the San Francisco Artists and Writers Union. His politics were reflected in his work, which was part of the mural arts movement intended to inspire change through criticism of the current political system.

Two of the mural panels have come under fire since the 1960’s for their depictions of African Americans and Native Americans. For decades, activists have called for their removal.

The Incident: In December 2018, George Washington High School was denied landmark status specifically due to the two panels containing offensive content. The high school is part of the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education. The Board was divided about the school’s application for landmark status because designating it as such would make it impossible to modify or remove the murals afterwards.

The SFUSD created a 13-member “Reflection and Action Group” to provide a recommendation to the Board. In February 2019, after four public meetings, they issued their final recommendation to remove the entire series of murals from the school.

The George Washington High School Alumni Association GWHSAA) launched a campaign to keep the 83-year-old murals intact. The alumni proposed adding interpretive panels to give them historical context and to also document how they have been experienced by Native American, African American, and other students of color.

The story was extensively covered in both local and national media. Those who would censor the work cited its depiction of slavery and the murder of a Native American as traumatizing to some students of color. Others, including NCAC and the leaders of four of San Francisco’s top visual arts institutions, argued that it is an artistic and historical treasure that does not celebrate the life of George Washington uncritically, but rather depicts him as complicit in slavery and the violent pursuit of America’s “Manifest Destiny.”

Results of Incident: On June 25, 2019, the San Francisco Board of Education voted unanimously to remove/paint over the murals.

Source: Photo: Amanda Law, via https://www.donnagraves.org/blog/2018/2/27/citywide-historic-context-for-new-deal-san-francisco


GEORGE WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL: ARNAUTOFF MURAL – SAN FRANCISCO CA https://livingnewdeal.org/projects/george-washington-high-school-arnautoff-mural-san-francisco-ca/

CITYWIDE HISTORIC CONTEXT FOR NEW DEAL SAN FRANCISCO https://www.donnagraves.org/blog/2018/2/27/citywide-historic-context-for-new-deal-san-francisco

NCAC Letter: May 6, 2019 SAN FRANCISCO HIGH SCHOOL MAY DESTROY HISTORICAL MURALS https://ncac.org/news/san-francisco-high-school-may-destroy-historical-murals

Professor Dewey Crumpler Defends GWHS Murals GWHS Alumni Assn SF CA Art Professor Dewey Crumpler defends Victor Arnautoff's (WPA/PWA 1936) Murals and discusses how the Arnautoff murals relate to his [Crumpler's] 1974 murals, and vice versa, at George Washington High School (San Francisco, California). We must face, not erase, America’s dark history. Censorship is never acceptable. - GWHS Alumni Association https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZEMpyvdAXQ&feature=youtu.be

June 26, 2019 San Francisco school board votes to destroy controversial Washington High mural Jill Tucker https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/San-Francisco-school-board-votes-to-destroy-14050025.php

SF school board votes to destroy circa 1936 mural “No one has the right to tell us as native people—or our young people who walk those halls everyday—how they feel” https://sf.curbed.com/2019/6/24/18716046/george-washington-high-murals-sfusd-vote-victor-arnautoff

SFUSD Approves Covering Controversial George Washington High School Mural https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2019/06/26/george-washington-high-school-mural-cover-up-sfusd/

June 25, 2019 Bay Area art leaders on censorship of George Washington High mural The controversial mural will see its fate decided during a Tuesday evening school board meeting https://datebook.sfchronicle.com/art-exhibits/bay-area-art-leaders-on-censorship-of-george-washington-high-mural

School board votes to paint over historic high school mural Alumni have threatened to sue over removal of frescoes depicting slavery, death of Native Americans https://www.sfexaminer.com/the-city/school-board-votes-to-paint-over-offensive-sections-of-historic-high-school-mural/

June 24, 2019 Open Forum: The San Francisco School Board is flunking history By Lope Yap Jr. https://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/openforum/article/Open-Forum-The-San-Francisco-School-Board-is-14039382.php

June 20, 2019 High school mural debate a reminder that destroying art destroys our culture https://datebook.sfchronicle.com/art-exhibits/high-school-mural-debate-a-reminder-that-destroying-art-destroys-our-culture

June 19, 2019 Activists want a racist San Francisco high school mural removed https://tworowtimes.com/opinion/activists-want-a-racist-san-francisco-high-school-mural-removed/

June 17, 2019 Fate of controversial SF high school mural down to three options https://www.sfchronicle.com/education/article/Fate-of-controversial-SF-high-school-mural-down-14008090.php?psid=auUdw

June 15, 2019 National Coalition Against Censorship Urges Retaining Washington Murals https://sfrichmondreview.com/2019/06/15/national-coalition-against-censorship-urges-retaining-washington-murals/

June 10 2019 Activists want a high school mural removed. Should its impact today overshadow the artist's intentions? https://www.cnn.com/style/article/george-washington-mural-conversation/index.html

MAY 13, 2019 David and Art - "High School Mural" By BRODIE BASHAW https://www.kwbu.org/post/david-and-art-high-school-mural#stream/0

May 7, 2019 9:00 p.m Feds could weigh in on fight over preservation of historic mural SFUSD working group favors removal of controversial Washington High School fresco https://www.sfexaminer.com/the-city/feds-could-weigh-in-on-fight-over-preservation-of-historic-mural/

May 3, 2019 High School May Remove George Washington Mural that 'Traumatizes Students and Community Members' http://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2019/may/high-school-may-remove-george-washington-mural-that-traumatizes-students-and-community-members

Apr 15, 2019 STUDENT OPINION Should School Murals That Depict an Ugly History Be Removed? https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/15/learning/should-school-murals-that-depict-an-ugly-history-be-removed.html

April 11, 2019 These High School Murals Depict an Ugly History. Should They Go? By Carol Pogash https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/11/arts/design/george-washington-murals-ugly-history-debated.html

April 9, 2019 Historic WPA murals at George Washington High School are facing destruction due to controversial depictions of Native Americans and African-Americans https://richmondsfblog.com/2019/04/09/historic-wpa-murals-at-george-washington-high-school-are-facing-destruction-due-to-controversial-depictions-of-native-americans-and-african-americans/

April 8, 2019 Critics say mural depicting slavery, Native Americans at a San Francisco high school is offensive http://www.ktvu.com/news/ktvu-local-news/critics-say-mural-depicting-slavery-native-americans-at-a-san-francisco-high-school-is-offensive

Offensive or important? Debate flares anew over SF school mural depicting slavery https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/Offensive-or-important-Debate-flares-anew-over-13748800.php

April 2, 2019 Washington High Alumni Push to Keep Dubious Mural A mural showing colonizers stepping over a dead Native American has long been controversial, but an alumni group is fighting to save it. http://www.sfweekly.com/news/washington-high-alumni-push-to-keep-dubious-mural/


What is Censorpedia?

Censorpedia is a crowdsourced online database of censorship cases within the arts and in culture. It is aimed at those researching censorship, at activists working for freedom of expression and at artists and other cultural producers whose expression has been subject to censorship or attempted censorship.

Censorpedia documents censorship incidents by providing the who, what, when, where and why. By providing a repository of information about what is vulnerable to censorship and about the strategies and tactics that have defeated previous’ censorship attempts, Censorpedia aids the fight for free expression.

Researchers can search for a specific case, year or keyword using the search box, as well as browse by medium, by grounds for censorship, or explore a random case.

Activists can search for ongoing cases or contribute a case that is ongoing or recently resolved.

Artists and cultural producers are similarly invited to add cases they are directly involved with or are familiar with first hand.

Censorpedia builds on the landmark 1994 art project The File Room, initiated by Muntadas.

For more information about censorship visit our Annotated Bibliography


Feel free to:

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